A dental prosthesis is a medical device that replaces one or more missing teeth, such as a brace or bridge. And these devices are intended for people who have no teeth at all, but also for people who have lost a few teeth. Another type of artificial tooth can also be used to protect weak, decayed, fractured or worn-out teeth. In this case, it is the crown that protects the tooth from irritation that could lead to tooth extraction.
Fixed Prosthodontics
•       Fixed prosthetics, such as bridges or crowns, can be placed over natural teeth.
•       A bridge aims to replace one or more missing teeth between two existing perpendicular teeth, anterior and posterior.
•       A metal, porcelain, or porcelain-ceramic crown, or metal-ceramic crown, protects weak teeth.
•       There is also a fixed prosthesis that is supported by an implant, which is an artificial root implanted in the bone.
•       Fixed prosthodontics are always a better solution than removable ones due to their mobility. However, the use of removable dentures is advised when a fixed denture is impossible.
Types of dental prostheses
•       Dental crowns, commonly used in dentistry, are a type of fixed prosthesis that makes it possible to rebuild or protect damaged teeth. Materials, mounting (bridge, core lining…).
•       A dental bridge (fixed or secured) is a dental prosthesis that replaces one or more teeth.
Removable dental prosthesis
•       Removable artificial teeth can be complete or partial, made of resin or with a metal abutment, “which is hereinafter called stellite.
•       It is stronger and lighter than artificial teeth made of resin. These removable artificial teeth are also less expensive alternatives to fixed prosthetics.
•       Unlike full prostheses, removable partial prosthetics replace a few teeth, and are indicated when implants cannot be implanted – because bone resorption is too large – or in the absence of back teeth, when the missing teeth are in the back from the mouth of the teeth.
•       Removable prosthodontics are devices intended to replace missing teeth (previously known as “dentures”).
•       It can be complete or partial depending on the number of missing teeth.
Mixed teeth replacement
•       Finally, there is another type of artificial teeth, the so-called removable and non-removable mixed artificial teeth:
•       These artificial teeth are based on natural teeth or implants. In the case of a completely toothless mouth, four implants can be placed, which are cut into a movable device that is fixed with a device of push-buttons. This device can also be used on natural teeth if they are well placed in the mouth.
•       The main advantage of these mixed artificial teeth compared to the removable artificial teeth is that they are firmly attached to the natural teeth or implants thanks to the pressing buttons, and the device does not move in the mouth.
Temporary Dental Prosthodontics
•       They are used while waiting for the final prosthesis to be placed.
•       Temporary artificial teeth made of resin. They are used while waiting for the final prosthesis to be placed.
•       Removable temporary artificial teeth replace missing teeth.
•       Fixed temporary artificial teeth are resin crowns or bridges designed to protect teeth while waiting for permanent artificial teeth.
•       The number one reason for using a temporary prosthesis is aesthetic, but it also has clinical significance. It serves to keep the dental structures at the same level between the moment the impression is taken and the moment of the prosthesis, because everything moves very large and fast in the mouth.
Complete tooth replacement
•       It is indicated that full artificial teeth, which are often made of resin, are used for a completely toothless mouth.
•       However, we are seeing more and more bridges on implants or the use of removable and non-removable prostheses on implants.
The common types of dentures are:
•       Complete dentures for patients who have lost all their teeth.
•       Removable partial dentures are intended for patients who have lost some teeth or who prefer a removable option.
•       Fixed partial dentures are intended for patients who have lost some teeth and for those who prefer a non-removable option.
•       Extra implants are intended for patients who need additional retention due to bone loss. Implanted dentures provide an anchorage for the teeth when they are in the mouth. However, they must be removed for cleaning.
•       Immediate (same day) dentures are intended for patients who want their teeth removed and dentures fitted on the same day.
How are dentures made?
Once a dental prosthesis is fitted, it takes from a few days to a few weeks for it to be manufactured in a dental laboratory. You will also need to make several appointments with your dentist or prosthodontist (a specialist in replacing teeth).
In general, the dental prosthesis manufacturing process consists of 10 steps:
1-     The dentist takes impressions and measurements of the jaw bones/teeth.
2-     A plaster model of your mouth is created from impressions.
3-     The model is placed on a joint (a mechanical device representing the jaw). This allows the technician to secure the teeth with wax.
4-     After the dental prosthesis is placed, the dental technician sculpts and shapes the wax to create realistic gum tissue.
5-     Then the artificial teeth are placed in a bottle (holding device). Additional plaster is poured over the prosthesis to maintain its shape.
6-     Place the bottle in boiling water, allowing the wax residue to be rinsed off.
7-     The technician injects acrylic into the bottle to replace the wax. To make sure the acrylic doesn’t stick, he applies a liquid separator to the grout.
8-     Carefully separate the plaster cast from the suit and remove any remaining plaster.
9-     The technician then cuts off the excess acrylic and polishes it.
10- The prosthesis will be returned to your dentist, who will make a suitable appointment. No adjustments are made (if necessary).
Who manufactures and installs dental prostheses?
General dentists
General dentists make dentures. They also provide preventive and restorative services, such as X-rays, dental cleanings, cavity fillings and sealants.
Unlike specialists who focus on a specific area of ​​dentistry, general dentists offer a wide range of treatments for people of all ages.
Prosthodontics
Prosthodontists are the main suppliers of dentures. They specialize in many dental replacement procedures.
Causes of tooth loss
Tooth loss is the number one reason why people get dentures. There are a few major causes of tooth loss, including the following:
•       Gum disease (most common)
•       Tooth extraction
•       Natural aging
•       Poor oral care
•       Severe tooth decay
•       Injury to the face or jaw
You also have a higher risk of losing your teeth if you:
•       Over 35 years old
•       Smoking or using tobacco products
•       You have rheumatoid arthritis
•       You have diabetes or high blood pressure
•       Neglecting dental cleaning and professional examinations (every six months).
•       Neglecting home dental care (brushing and flossing and rinsing with mouthwash twice a day).
Who are the candidates for dentures?
•       Both men and women with severe tooth loss are candidates for dentures. These do not depend on the age, but rather on the condition of the patient’s teeth.
•       It is also important for the patient to have an adequate bone structure and healthy gum tissue. Dentures need enough natural tissue support to stay in place for a long time.
•       The most common age group for wearing false teeth is people over 65 years of age. The need for dentures after the age of 40 is also common, especially among women.
Types of dentures
There are many types of dentures. The type of prosthesis best for you depends on your oral health and lifestyle. The most common types of dentures are:
Complete dentures
•       Complete dentures, also called complete dentures, are removable replacements for all of a patient’s teeth. They are fully customized and restore the look and feel of natural teeth.
•       Traditional dentures also improve chewing, which means you can crush, grind and eat food normally again.
•       If chewing functions were normal before the prosthesis was fitted, they would be much less important than natural teeth or implants. The lack of anchorage in the bone means that you are unable to produce the same amount of chewing force.
•       Many patients also develop speech disorders, such as lisping, with complete dentures. This is due to the thickness of the material covering the palate (which is necessary and cannot be diluted). Some people adapt to it over time, and some don’t.
Candidates for full denture prosthesis are as follows:
•       Elderly: “complete dentinodontia” (absence of teeth) is more common in the elderly (65+). This is because tooth loss is associated with aging, especially in geriatric patients (who suffer from diseases and problems due to aging).
•       Younger patients: In rare cases, younger patients may also be candidates for full dentures. This is only the case if they lose all of their teeth due to injury or severe tooth decay.
•       Fixed partial dentures (implant supported bridge)
•       Fixed partial dentures, also called bridges on implants, use existing teeth as abutments. Abutments refer to the surrounding teeth that serve as the main support for a prosthesis.
•       Fixed partial dentures replace a few consecutive missing teeth with two dental implants.
•       Unlike complete and removable partial dentures, implants cannot be removed. These permanent artificial teeth make it possible to restore one or more missing teeth in a row when there are strong natural teeth on both sides of the missing teeth.
Advantages of fixed partial dentures
•       Improving Aesthetics
•       Patients generally feel safer with a fixed (permanent) prosthesis.
•       Stronger than removable artificial teeth
•       Steady position of the teeth and better occlusion
•       Longer protection of the labial structure
Removable Partial Dentures
•       Unlike complete dentures that replace all teeth, removable partial dentures (RPDs) replace only some of the missing teeth.
•       Removable Partial Dentures A removable partial denture consists of replacement teeth attached to a gum-colored plastic base.
•       Removable partial dentures are manufactured over a die-cast metal frame for increased strength. It restores the natural look, appearance and function of your teeth.
•       RPD files can be removed at any time and replaced easily. They are often recommended for patients who cannot benefit from a dental bridge (implant bridge).
There are two types of removable partial dentures:
•       Cast Partial Dentures: Partial dentures are made of tissue-colored acrylic (gum), replacement teeth and a metal frame that holds all materials together. Dentists recommend these artificial teeth when one or more natural teeth remain in the lower or upper jaw.
•       Acrylic partial dentures: Also called “palm” dentures, they are made of acrylic resin and mimic the shape and function of natural teeth. They come with or without wrought iron hooks. Acrylic dentures are temporary because the patient’s gums fully support the teeth. Long-term use may cause gums to recede.
Dental implants over implants (extra dentures)
Implant-supported dentures: Implant-supported dentures, also known as trailing dentures, are not permanently attached to dental implants. They snap into place and cling to the poles (metal poles). Implant-supported dentures support more than one tooth and often a full set of teeth.
Implant-supported dentures increase stability and improve chewing function better than conventional dentures. However, they must be removed every night to clean them and let the tissues rest.
Advantages of dental implants supported by implants
•       It lasts for a long time
•       Provides a functional set of natural-looking teeth with greater comfort.
•       Provides better natural surfaces for biting and chewing.
Instant Prosthetics Prosthodontics
Immediate prosthesis In the case of conventional prostheses, after all teeth have been extracted, the patient must wait at least 6 to 8 weeks before placing the prosthesis.
This gives the dislocation site and jawbone time to heal.
Immediate removable artificial teeth can be used immediately after your natural teeth have been extracted. Although practical, instant artificial teeth are more difficult to place than conventional artificial teeth because they are not specifically molded to the gums.
The types of instant dental prostheses are:
•       Traditional Prosthodontics: These are removable artificial teeth that are intended to be used immediately after the extraction of natural teeth. They are also made from the same materials as traditional or conventional dentures.
•       Temporary Prosthodontics: Removable false teeth designed to improve the aesthetics and appearance of the face. It also improves oral function for a short time before the final prosthesis is fitted.
However, temporary dentures are usually made of lighter materials, as they are only used temporarily.
Prosthetic Dentures
Additional dentures, also called prosthodontics, are other names for implant-supported removable dentures. These false teeth are held in place by dental implants that are fixed to the jawbone. In most cases, two to four implants are held in place. However, up to 10 implants can be inserted.
Once the implants are surgically inserted into the bone, you can place the prosthesis over the implants. The prosthesis can be removed at any time, but the implants cannot be removed.
How to clean and maintain artificial teeth?
•       In the evening, brush your dental prostheses with a soft brush to remove plaque.
•       While brushing teeth, removable dentures should be placed over the sink with a small towel.
•       This towel is used as a pillow in case it falls. It is common for false teeth to break if they fall in the sink, on the table, or on the floor.
•       Soak them in denture cleaning fluid overnight.
•       In the morning, brush it again and wear it throughout the day.
•       It can be soaked overnight in white vinegar diluted with water to remove scales or to prevent scales from forming. Strong vinegar is acidic and can damage the surface of the teeth and cause acid wear.
By taking care of your dentures, you ensure that your gums, jawbones and artificial teeth remain healthy in the long term.